Research Categories / Air Quality

Operational Limits of Chemical Herders

This study measured the influence of oil characteristics and temperature on herder efficacy at the lab scale. ARA systematically tested the function of chemical herders across several crude oils. Both commercially available herders were tested. The herders were tested on crude oils with varying properties. This project developed a repeatable method for testing herder effectiveness. Parameters for herder effectiveness were also identified. A total of 14 oils were tested with the two herders at two temperatures.

Venting and Flaring Research: Analysis of Potential Opportunities to Reduce Venting and Flaring on the OCS

BSEE is committed to searching for and adopting new and progressive methods for further enhancing safety, environmental protection, and the conservation of resources on the OCS. It is therefore incumbent upon the Bureau to explore possibilities that may exist for the increased capture of gas that would otherwise be vented and flared in offshore operations.

TAP-607-Assessing Risk and Modeling a Sudden Gas Release Due to Gas Pipeline Ruptures

The objective of this study was to develop a computer software solution to model the behavior of wet or dry gas from a single-phase sub-sea pipeline release (rupture) from sea-bed to harmless in-air concentration.

Work focused on nine tasks, including:

1. Identification of Typical Gas Pipeline Release Scenarios,

2. Estimation of Gas Pipeline Accident Probabilities,

3. Modification of POSVCM for Gas Release from Sub-sea
Pipeline,

4. 3D Gas Rise Modeling,

5. Graphical User Interface Modifications,

Assessment of Risks Associated with Carbon Monoxide Gas During Well Perforation

This project is an attempt to determine if CO is a hazard to OCS workers during well perforating operations. Several people have died during onshore perforating operations, and these deaths may have been caused by CO. A kick-off meeting was held in Camarillo on November 9, 1999. The principal investigator was able to gather information from MMS and State of California personnel, and then speak with lawyers familiar with suits resulting from the onshore deaths.

Raprenox Exhaust Gas Treatment Process for NOx in Gas Turbine Engines

This project continues a previous contract for the development of a patented process to reducing nitrogen oxide gases emanating from engines operating on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The concept, RAPRENOx, is non-toxic and is considered the most effective means for achieving Clean Air Act NOx limitations offshore within the next few years. The process was proven effective and commercially marketable when used with diesel engines. Under the previous MMS contract, Technor showed that the RAPRENOx process can be applied to small scale gas turbine exhausts.

Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) Measures for the California Outer Continental Shelf

A technical and economic analysis of candidate RACT measures applicable to the California Outer Continental Shelf was determined.

A questionnaire was used to determine emission sources of NOx, VOC, PM and SO.

Engine Emission Control

Arthur D. Little, Inc. performed a three part investigation of the control of NOx emissions offshore:

1) identification of nitrogen oxide control technologies suitable for use offshore (retrofit and new installations);
2) determine the types of improvements needed for the most promising candidates to qualify them for full-scale in-situ feasibility demonstrations;
3) devise a long-range plan for selecting leading candidates, and determine the costs for developing.

Development of the Raprenox Process of NOx Control in Diesel Exhausts

The objective was to develop an exhaust treatment process to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in internal combustion engine exhausts. The process uses nontoxic cyanuric acid as a reagent and does not require a catalyst. Experimentation was conducted in a flow tube where the exhaust temperatures and mixing of the reagent can be measured. Of critical interest was the effectiveness of the mixing and the temperatures necessary to reduce NOx efficiently at realistic large diesel engine exhaust flows.

NOx Control Workshop

Arthur D. Little, Inc., under cooperative sponsorship from the Minerals Management Service and the Air Pollution Control District, Santa Barbara, conducted a 2-day workshop on the technologies to reduce the exhaust output of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) from Outer Continental Shelf operations. Both gas turbine and diesel engine modifications, fuels, and exhaust treatment processes were addressed. The final report from Project No. 126, was used as a basic document for use in the workshop.

NOx Control Development Program

Following the recommendations from the NOx Control Workshop, Project No. 137, Arthur D. Little, Inc., devised a plan for pursuing an Outer Continental Shelf NOx reduction development/demonstration program. In addition, ADL solicited participants for the program and investigated the feasibility of using new technologies and fuels for NOx reduction.

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