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Behavior of Oil

OSRR-506-Analysis of IFO-180 and IFO-380 Oil Properties for Dispersant Window of Opportunity

This project will extend the work to complete property analyses on IFO-180 and IFO-380 fuel oils used in the June 2003 UK field trials and in the Ohmsett dispersant effectiveness experiments completed in the fall of 2003.

Tasks to be completed:

Conduct detailed oil property analyses on IFO-180 and IFO-380 fuel oils;
Write a technical report, scientific paper and powerpoint presentation that incorporate results from all analyses (SL Ross and COOGER laboratory maintained by the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans) on the results of this research project.

OSRR-390-A Method to Determine Worst Case Discharges from Facilities that Produce or Transport Oil in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)

This project produced a model to predict a discharge from a pipeline. It also included a pocket guide to quickly make an estimate of a worst case discharge from a pipeline. The model is known as the Minerals Management Service Pipeline Oil Spill Volume Estimation Model (POSVEM). POSVEM is a computer-based methodology to estimate discharges from seafloor pipelines. The system is composed of a Release Module and a Near Field Module, linked together with necessary databases through a Graphical User Interface (GUI).

OSRR-347-Emulsions Formed at Sea and in Test Tanks

This project will evaluate the tendency of oils to emulsify at sea into unstable, meso-stable, or stable emulsions. Until now there were only laboratory scale tests of emulsification and some analysis of emulsions collected at sea during clean up operations. The proposed work will extend the laboratory work into the Ohmsett tank and evaluate the factors that affect emulsification, such as oil slick thickness and wave energy in a controlled, reproducible environment like Ohmsett.

OSRR-324-Experimental and Analytical Study of Multi-phase Plumes in a Stratified Ocean with Application to Deep Ocean Spills

These are laboratory studies of the break up of oil, gas, and gas/oil mixtures discharging into a pressurized water environment. The interaction between gas bubbles and oil droplets under dynamic conditions simulating buoyant rise of this mixture were calculated. These experiments will be conducted in a high pressure test vessel located at the University of Hawaii. The experimental design simulated the release of hydrocarbon gases and fluids from a well blowout or pipeline rupture in deep water. The atmospheric pressure experiments were performed at MIT.

OSRR-311-Oil Spill Containment, Remote Sensing, and Tracking from Deep Water Blowouts Status of Existing and Emerging Technologies

This is an assessment of existing or developing technologies that could be used to sense, track, contain and recover oil released by deep water blowouts or pipeline ruptures. The assessment will include literature reviews, consultation with experts in well control and a review of U.S. and international patents for developing technologies in this field.

OSRR-287-Fate and Behavior of Deepwater Subsea Oil Well Blowouts in the Gulf of Mexico

To analyze the behavior of oil spilled during a deep water blowout. The study will focus on three questions: What properties and behavior are expected of the oil on the surface, such as slick thickness, area, and dispersibility?;
what cleanup measures, if any, are available and appropriate to deal with the spill?; and
are there any major differences in oil spill behavior and countermeasures between a blowout.

OSRR-162-Development of a Portable Oil Analysis Kit for Responders

The Minerals Management Service joined in a cooperative effort with Environment Canada to develop a field kit to measure oil properties. Spill responders must understand the properties of the petroleum before determining safe and efficient countermeasures for spills. Many countermeasures are precluded when oil becomes highly viscous and dense through weathering. Development of the kit focused on five tests; density, viscosity, water content, flash point and dispersant effectiveness.

OSRR-120-Physical Behavior of Oil in the Ocean

This is a Joint Industry Project (JIP) between MMS and Environment Canada to study oil behavior and oil properties, particularly those of heavy oils. The study includes: buoyancy behavior, solubility, evaporation, dispersion, photo-oxidation, and emulsification. Several information gaps were identified on the behavior of oils where more experimental work is needed:

the kinetics of oil emulsification; the rate of solubilization; the rate of dispersion.

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