Research Categories / Chemical Treating Agents

OSRR-1067-Characterizing Dispersant Effectiveness of Crude Oil at High Salinities: Implications for Subsea Spill Preparedness

The objective of the proposed research is to evaluate the influence of salinity on dispersant effectiveness for select oils and dispersants, from 10-125 psu salinity, using the baffled flask test which provides a broad range of sufficient mixing energy including those observed in field conditions. Additionally, this project will characterize dispersant effectiveness during wave/flume tank simulations of high-velocity subsea releases of oil injected with dispersant at high salinities and subsequent mixing of plume to capture relative changes in dispersant effectiveness.

OSRR-1018-Dispersant Effectiveness Literature Synthesis

To support BSEE's mission towards promoting safety and protecting the marine environment, SwRI synthesized the current state of knowledge on dispersant effectiveness testing to establish a baseline and aid in developing a road map for future research and technical development.

Upon completing the literature review, SwRI summarized the findings concerning the state of knowledge and key knowledge gaps in a report provided to BSEE. SwRI also provided a searchable database of articles and/or abstracts and links.

OSRR-1030-Research to Support the Prediction of Effectiveness of Dispersant Use in the U.S. Beaufort and Chukchi Seas

The objective of the study has been to provide information to support dispersant use decision-making with respect to oil spill chemical dispersant effectiveness under the environmental conditions likely to be encountered in the U.S. Beaufort and Chukchi Seas.

The goals of the goals research were to:

Task 1. Identify the prevailing environmental conditions in the U.S. Beaufort and Chukchi Seas that would affect dispersant performance;

OSRR-1038-Biodegradation Following Dispersant Usage in a Cold, Stratified, Deep Sea Setting

PNNL will conduct a set of controlled laboratory experiments simulating environments of the US Outer Continental Shelf characterized by high pressure, low temperature, and low mixing to first characterize the performance of dispersants and second, to characterize subsequent biodegradation. Four sets of experiments are detailed that will characterize;

OSRR-1043-Scientifically Based Field Tools for Predicting Dispersant Effectiveness and Usage Rates

The objective of this project is to evaluate the standardized Baffled Flask Test using fluorescence analysis and study the effects of pressure and various environmental conditions on oil when released in deep sea environments. This project will also bridge the gap between laboratory methodology and field analysis by incorporating the modified 1 liter Baffled Flask Test and fluorescence probe for determining dispersant effectiveness in the field.

OSRR-681-Laboratory-Scale Investigation of a Method for Enhancing the Effectiveness of Oil Dispersants in Destabilizing Water-in-Oil Emulsions

The research investigated the feasibility of enhancing the de-emulsifying properties of commercially available oil dispersants by modifying the composition and fraction of polar constituents in the oil phase of water-in-oil emulsions and increasing the pH of the emulsion aqueous phase.

The following tasks were accomplished during the research effort:

OSRR-683-Using Oil Herding Agents for Rapid Response In Situ Burning of Oil Spills on Open Water

The objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of using herders to enable in situ burning as a rapid-response technique in open water. This research was accomplished by performing experiments in the laboratory with the US Navy's hydrocarbon based herder formulation and the best silicone herder formulation to find the most effective product for various water temperatures.

OSRR-685-Operational Chemical Dispersant Research at Ohmsett

This project is a direct continuation of Project 638 Chemical Dispersant Research at Ohmsett: Phase 2. The objective of the research is to advance the state of the art and knowledge in chemical dispersant use in marine spill applications. Three separate projects will be conducted: Validation of Time Window for Dispersant Use Model
Comparison of Small Scale Dispersant Testing Methods to Ohmsett Results: The Effects of Dispersant Type and Oil Properties

Assessment of Dispersant Effectiveness using Ultrasound to Measure Oil Droplet Particle Size Distributions

The goal of this proof-of-concept project was to develop novel ultrasonic scattering methods to measure the droplet size of dispersed oil to provide technologies to monitor the efficacy of subsea dispersant application. ARA developed ultrasonic measurements to determine the crude oil droplet size of dispersed oil to monitor/determine the efficacy of dispersants as a function of oil type, dispersant type, dispersant-to-oil ratio, water temperature, oil temperatures, and the presence of sediment on the effectiveness of dispersants.